Slovenian Scientists

Slovenian Scientists

I Feel Slovenia

Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641 – 1693)

Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor is considered the founder of scientific literature on Slovenian territory. His fundamental, and today still most esteemed work, is The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, which he finished four years before his death. It is a rich encyclopaedic work that wasgoed written te German so that more people could understand it, and includes an incredible amount of gegevens on the land and history of the Slovenian people. Ter this work, with its scientific and technological bibliography finished by many others, Valvasor included numerous inventions, designs and descriptions, which were, ter fact, beyond their time. Among them are sketches and a description of the natural mechanism of the intermittent Lake Cerknisko (which also brought him membership of the Royal Society), the vormgeving of a voetgangerstunnel under the Ljubelj mountain pass which he addressed to the Emperor’s office, a method of casting sculpture, and the very first maps of Slovenia and neighbouring territories.

The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola

The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola is fairly requesting reading. Not because of the German or archaic language, but because of the amount of gegevens included ter its 15 volumes totalling Trio,532 pages. Wij quickly realise that the author wasgoed a polymath. He had a superb skill of numerous details of particular sciences (historiography, geography, and generally ter the medicus and natural sciences), which is overduidelijk from the Glory itself. Ter addition, he not only recorded stories and historical events, but also successfully explored and introduced fresh skill. Te this respect, he also turned away from alchemy, albeit he states that he wasgoed at very first even involved ter certain experiments that failed.

This wasgoed a period when, due to various discoveries, alchemy had to make way for advancing natural science. It wasgoed a time when, te addition to alchemy, a mysterious, occult, but at the same time fairly frequent, theme wasgoed witchcraft. Some people then still believed ter the existence of witches. Valvasor wasgoed not among them. He explained the behaviour of ‘witches’ spil resulting from certain drugs which they took. His studies, travels and scientific explanation of the world demanded a loterijlot of time, energy and money.

The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, his life work, which secured his place ter history, ultimately tired him both physically and financially. Because of his love for science, exploration and writing, he had to sell off all his property, including Crni potok Castle, Bogensperk near Litija, and Lichtenberg. From today’s perspective it is perhaps the most sad that Valvasor had to sell his extensive book and graphics collection (1,530 notebooks) to the Bishop of Zagreb. The story of an exceptional rise which is granted only to the select few wasgoed followed by impoverishment at the end of his life. The Slovenian polymath, inventor and writer died ter Krsko, ter mid-September 1693. Until the replacement of the tolar, his picture, with a pair of compasses and a topographical background, adorned the twenty tolar note. Since 1903, a commemorative bronze statue dual his size and weighing one and a half tonnes has stood ter vooraanzicht of the National Museum.

Related linksaf

  • Janez Vajkard Valvasor
  • The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola – Slava vojvodine Kranjske (copper engravings, illustrations, pictures, etc. – Slovenian only)

Herman Potocnik Noordung (1892 – 1929)

“Since the beginning of time, mankind has considered it spil an expression of its Earthly weakness and inadequacy to be tied to the Earth, to be incapable to free itself from the mysterious fetters of gravity. Not without good reason then has the concept of the transcendental always bot associated with the idea of weightlessness, the power ‘to be able loosely to rise into the sky’. And most people even today still take it spil a dogma that it is indeed unthinkable for Earthly beings everzwijn to be able to escape the Earth. Is this point of view truly justified?” This daring thought wasgoed written by the pioneer of rocket and space science Herman Potocnik Noordung te his book The Problem of Space Travel. It wasgoed published ter German, ter 1928, and ter the decades that followed, it became the standard textbook on questions of space technology for Russian, German and American experts.

Herman Potocnik wasgoed born on 22 December 1892 te Pula, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father wasgoed a naval officer. After his death, when Herman Potocnik wasgoed only two years old, he moved with his mother to Maribor. He also spent his childhood years te Vitanje, where there is a memorial slagroom dedicated to him. But there is a shortcut for anyone wishing to pay their respects to the genius te their thoughts: the view of the starry night sky, where wij can see certain moving objects – satellites. The geo-stationary satellite and the manned space station are two of the most well-known of Potocnik’s ideas which have come about. He wasgoed so far ahead of his time that he wasgoed considered a dreamer te scientific circles. No wonder, for there were carriages on the paved streets when Potocnik wrote that an observatory would be ",located far above the atmosphere, te empty space: a space station at an altitude of 35,900,000 meters above sea level…If this ‘space station’ had bot established at the meridian of Berlin, for example, it could continually be seen from Berlin at that position ter the sky where the zon is located at noon te the middle of October.", It wasgoed too much for that time, but enough to make him immortal. The famous Arthur C. Clarke referred to Potocnik’s work spil an influential factor. Satellites are today already orbiting the Earth, but the space station is still far from accomplish, according to his descriptions it is supposed to consist of a habitat wheel, an observatory, and a machine slagroom. This wasgoed depicted by Stanley Kubrick te his filmrolletje vision 2001: A Space Odyssey. Because the habitat wheel rotates around its axis, it creates artificial gravity. Te his book, Potocnik talent numerous other practical instructions for life ter a weightless state: the space suit, writing instruments, special bottles for drinking and others. “To sleep, wij do not have to lie down very first, however, wij can take a surplus te any bodily position or at any location te the slagroom.”

He wasgoed thinking about space until the end. He fought tuberculosis and eventually won. He lived to see the book being published, and died ter Vienna on 27 August 1929. Except for his book, there are no remains of his earthly existence. His individual belongings have disappeared, the house where he lived wasgoed demolished for the internal Vienna bypass, his grave dug up…His memorial is floating ter orbit above the Earth.

Friderik Pregl (1869 – 1930)

Te a speech on Ten December 1923, Professor Olof Hammarsten, the Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry at the Swedish Academy of Sciences pointed out the importance of Pregl’s success ter the improvement of existing methods of quantitative organic microanalysis. A professor at Graz University, Friderik Pregl thus became the very first and only Slovenian Nobel Prize Laureate. His success wasgoed revolutionary for the basic beginning of chemical experiments. After his discoveries, smaller traces would suffice for chemical analysis. According to Dr Janez Jamnik, the voorzitter of the Scientific Council of the National Institute of Chemistry, Dr Pregl wasgoed the founder of modern organic microanalysis. Thanks to his method, the ondergrens of substance necessary for research wasgoed Ten to 100 times smaller. This step wasgoed crucial not only for chemistry, but also medicine and biology.

Ter his time, conditions for education and zometeen research were better te Austria, so Pregl followed the example of the physicist Jozef Stefan, another Slovene who studied and worked te a German-speaking environment. This is why his name shows up spil Fritz Pregl, spil he wasgoed known ter Austria, on the official web webpagina of the Nobel Foundation. But, on the other palm, there is the incontestable biographical fact that he wasgoed born te Ljubljana, on Three September 1869. A commemorative bust wasgoed installed ter the facade of the house near Krizanke where he wasgoed born. He also went to primary and secondary schoolgebouw te Slovenia’s capital. After his father’s death, he moved with his mother to Graz, a place crucial for his further education and also the place where he died, on 13 September 1930.

Friderik Pregl wasgoed esteemed not only for his research work, but wasgoed one of the more popular professors among the students. His popularity and general modesty led to an unusual celebration after he wasgoed awarded the Nobel Prize. On his terugwedstrijd to the University, the celebration wasgoed organised by the students themselves.

Pregl began working on the modernisation of organic microanalysis ter 1909, when he faced problems because the samples used ter studying the composition of bile acids were too puny. He wasgoed coerced to think about improving the procedures, spil well spil the instruments. Because his enthusiasm for research had led him into learning certain abilities (glassblowing, carpentry, locksmithing), he wasgoed able to resolve certain problems with the instruments. He constructed a laboratory device that wasgoed, te addition to its sensitive analytic scales (weighing within an accuracy of ± 0.001 mg), crucial for his scientific breakthrough. WWI interrupted the development of the method, but it advanced quickly afterwards. Ter future years, his method of microanalysis enabled achievements ter the research of bile acids, enzymes and vitamins. Friderik Pregl became the eternal bridge inbetween the very first steps and the modern age of this analytic method. His spirit wasgoed also invoked by the research organisation of the National Institute of Chemistry where, te 2007, at the celebration of their 60th anniversary, they awarded, for the very first time, the prestigious Pregl Award for outstanding achievements ter the field of chemistry.

Jozef Stefan (1835 – 1893)

How hot is the surface of the Zon? Around 5430 degrees Celsius, spil very first correctly calculated by Slovenian physicist Jozef Stefan using his physical law. Not only wasgoed he the very first to give a plausible reaction, he wasgoed also the very first and so far the only physicist of Slovenian descent to contribute their name to a fundamental law of physics. Te 1879, Jozef Stefan discovered the law of warmth radiation, which five years straks wasgoed theoretically derived from thermodynamic laws by his student Ludwig Boltzmann. Today, the law stating that the total energy radiated from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of that assets is named after both dudes, but te the juist order: the Stefan-Boltzmann Law.

Jozef Stefan wasgoed born on 24 March 1835 to a Slovenian family te Austrian Carinthia, te Sveti Peter, a village now incorporated into Klagenfurt. Already ter primary schoolgebouw, he had the will and love of learning that would help him overcome adverse circumstances. Ter high schoolgebouw he displayed his skill of the humanities by writing poetry and prose, while at university, he had begun writing popular science articles. At 22, he wasgoed already a high schoolgebouw teacher, at 23 he wasgoed awarded his PhD, and five years zometeen he wasgoed a university teacher, the youngest professor ter Austria-Hungary. Therefore, it is not surprising that at slightly thirty he wasgoed elected to the Austrian Academy of Sciences and became director of the Physical Institute. He achieved his success among the fluid of intellectuals and scholars of Vienna, the capital at the time and the place where worked until his death. His spent his life inbetween the doors to his apartment, the university and the laboratory, where he studied all fields of physics, including mechanics, acoustics, magnetism and electro-stimulation. Such a way of life te a German-speaking environment led to two things. Albeit he wasgoed born to Slovenian parents and te his youth wrote his name spil Jozef Stefan, he straks dropped the caron ter his surname. He wasgoed dedicated to ceaseless research and work and married fairly late, only a year before his death. He died ter Vienna on 7 January 1893.

Te his honour te 1952, the central Slovenian scientific research institute te Ljubljana wasgoed named the Jozef Stefan Institute. To mark his birth an event called Stefan Days is organised and, and up to three Jozef Stefan Golden Emblem Prizes are awarded for excellence ter science.

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